The Holy Monastery of Panagia of Kalamos is located north of Xanthi on a rock that dominates the green ravine of Kosinthos and the whole area. From there, the worshiper can admire the entire mountainous area of ​​Rodopi and let his gaze fall to the depths of the horizon in the plain of Xanthi.

This nunnery, as it is today, was built just at the beginning of the 20th century, and its temple, as a building is modern since it was erected in 1965, in the place of the old one that was roughly constructed. Equally modern are the cells of the monks that are located at the western side of the monastery.

According to tradition, the monastery was built during the times of iconoclasm (726-843), by monks that were friend of icons, who broke free from the iconoclasts’ fanaticism, left Constantinople and came and settled here. As regards the name of the monastery Kalamos or Kalamiotissa, it comes from the fact that the holy icon of the Virgin Mary was found in reeds (kalamia).

The monastery continued to exist in the difficult years of the Greek revolution. We do not know what damages occurred at that time or during the great earthquakes that struck the city and the nearby monastery of the Virgin Mary of Archangeliotissa in 1829. Whatever the price of the Turks’ fury or the earthquake’s turmoil, it seems that the monastery quickly recovered and its reputation was spread so that monks came and dwelled in it, from Epirus until the 40 Churches and the Silivria of the east Thrace. The monastery of Kalamos had turned into a hive with a multitude of monks and many estates.

In the years of the occupation of Xanthi by the Bulgarians (1913-1919), the monastery was suffered the grab and plundering of the Bulgarians, who stole their codes, which are now in the ecclesiastical Museum of Sofia. But the rest of the monastery's property was destroyed during the years 1922-1925 when it was granted for the landless refugees' rehabilitation from suffer.

Recently, venerable Metropolitan of Xanthi, Antonios, took care of the reconstruction of the monastery, male in the beginning and nunnery afterwards, but also for the construction of a temple, cells, water supply and the construction of an asphalt road.

Today, the monastery of Panagia of Kalamos, apart from the perpetuation of its offer as a place of worship, aspires to be and emerge a spiritual beacon in the scientific field, as a guesthouse of the monastery was granted to the International Democritus Foundation for rebuilding in order to be used to accommodate the eminent visitors, speakers and researchers of that institution.

The nunnery of Panagia of Kalamos is built north of Xanthi, a small distance out of the city, at an altitude of 170 meters. Its memory is celebrated nine days after the Assumption of Theotokos(Virgin Mary) (23 August).